This article is for Neos 2.0 and thing might have changed in the meantime. At least the software packages are required in newer versions.
Neos is well known for its well designed interface for editors who quickly fall in love with the system. On the other hand, it’s also infamous for being hard to set up by starters due to its high demands towards the hosting environment. Someone also compared it to walking on a slack line: It’s easy to stumble and to get frustrated.
This article focuses on creating a hosting environment suited for Neos so you will be able to finish the Neos setup and get a running instance afterwards. I’m using Ubuntu 14.04 as reference but it also applies to other Linux distributions like Fedora, only the path names might differ a bit (